Gabriel Heinzer
December 28, 2021
Operator Precedence and Associativity
1min read

In algebra, you all know that multiplication and division have a higher precedence than addition and subtraction.

With the expression 1 + 2 * 3, you must first multiply 2 * 3 and then add 1 to the result.

Well, in Javascript, this concept is also valid, it is simply called Operator Precedence.


Precedence range from 1 to 19 :

  • Multiplication has a precedence of 13.
  • Addition has a precedence of 12.
  • Grouping (putting the expression between parenthesis) has the highest precedence. (19)
console.log(1 + 2 * 3);
// The multiplication is done first, the expression turns into
console.log(1 + 6);
// The addition is then evaluated, the result is 7

console.log((1 + 2) * 3);
// The grouped expression is read first, the expression turns into
console.log(3 * 3);
// The multiplication is then evaluated, the result is 9

The order of evaluation is also influenced by the operator associativity.

Associativity is the direction in which the expression is evaluated : right to left or left to right.


Assignment operators are right-associative, which means they are read from right to left :

a = b = 5
// is the same as
a = (b = 5)


❗ Grouped expressions are not always read first. If you use conditional evaluations, the condition will be checked first, then the expression between parenthesis will be evaluated.

a || (b * c);
// 'a' is evaluated first, then (b * c) is evaluated if 'a' is false
a && (b < c);
// 'a' is evaluated first, if 'a' is true (b * c) is evaluated


About the author

Ludivine Achouri

Passionate web developer from France


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